Differentiation and Beyond

Dragonfly Training offer practical courses designed for teachers across the world.

Teaching teachers. A piece of cake they said.

I spent a day with teachers from St. George’s English International School in Munich last week. A wide range of nationalities, skills, teaching backgrounds and experience and a whole host of previous training days under their belts. For the teachers, the new term promised a brand new school building, slightly out of the centre of Munich, but with so much to do and only so many hours in a day, the shiny windows, squeaky clean flooring and whistle-white walls would have to wait. It wasn’t ready. We were relocated to a local football club with a decent-sized function room.

Training teachers takes effort, patience, understanding and an unusual perspective. It took me a while to get over the fact that I wasn’t teaching and I wasn’t offering egg-sucking courses either. The fact that I had 22 years teaching experience didn’t really matter. What counted was my ideas, my take on teaching, knowing what works and finding the right way to connect with colleagues on many different levels. I consider myself to be emotionally intelligent. It is important to know what a bad training day looks and feels like. There have been a few. Listening to regurgitations of the ‘Haynes manual of teaching’ and wishing you were still on that beach. Painful. But a good training day can be inspirational, uplifting and fire you up for days, weeks and even years. I am fortunate enough to have attended lots of these. I have also worked with energizing colleagues and gained a great deal from them.

The teachers at St. George’s were definitely ready for a good day. Some were still figuring out where to live in their new town but all were ready to engage. After some warm up activities, we looked at three key pillars of good teaching and learning: Differentiation, Assessment for Learning and Feedback. Teachers tried some practical ways to differentiate for learners. We called it ‘personalization’. There are so many ways that learners can be challenged, stretched and engaged appropriately.

Here are some of our differentiation ideas:

  • Multi part tasks – split part one into three different tasks with different levels of complexity eg describe A) Romeo and Juliet main characters, B) family circumstances and C) the effect of family on their relationship. Then use all of these together to D) write a short summary of the main events of Romeo and Juliet and then E) write a 140 character tweet to summarize the story including spaces, hashtags, and emojis.
  • Providing roles – scribe, observer, listener, artist, designer, summarizer, timer etc. Kids love roles and respond differently to each job description. Rotate at will.
  • Scaffolding – provide support and structure in different guises. Simple skills developing into more complex skills. You can also use mind tools to help with creative thinking.
  • Framing questions – ‘from the viewpoint of ……., how did …….impact on …….’ creates opportunities for empathy and can also provide constraints within which a question can be answered.
  • Big questions – contextualizes the learning. This is important for all learners but especially EAL learners.
  • Real Issues – gets young people fired up about big issues and means they can see how learning becomes relevant to their world
  • Projects – learners can approach projects in so many different ways. Let them have an open-ended outcome and see what happens
  • Differentiation by learning needs – this could be dyslexia, EAL (English as an Additional Language), cognitive (processing), sight, hearing, behaviour, autism, Free School Meals, Gifted and Talented. Think about how you would need to differentiate for each of these.
  • By sequence – change the order of activities to suit the needs of different learners
  • By pace – change the timing of each activity to suit individuals but keep the pace up.
  • Use circus or stations – you can change the order, have certain stations for each group of learners or provide increasing complexity as you move around – this works well in science with different experiments for example.
  • By outcome – provide different levels of outcome (possibly colour them, grade them or give them different names such as ‘beginner’, ‘expert’, ‘ninja’)
  • By task – provide choices for learners eg hot, spicy, mild – better than easy, medium and difficult
  • By activity – watch something, listen to an audio file, talk to each other, write something, act out something – lots of ways to engage learners on different levels.
  • The ‘enable table’ – set up a table, space or wall display with extra, extension information.

There are many others (feel free to add yours in comments) but with a limited amount of time, we then considered how to assess pupils progress using a range of classroom techniques and strategies.

  • Asking questions (the right type of question) – these are the tools of your trade – get them right and you will find true wisdom and enlightenment!
  • Red, Orange, Green student response cards, to hold up, leave on the desk so that teachers can see who understands what.
  • Mini whiteboards – these have seen significant use in classrooms across the world. Great for checking on progress. Join them up in a line or make a ‘big picture’ with all of them on the floor or hold them up for a time lapse video.
  • Standing on a continuum – these are useful and get learners out of their seats – try ‘yes/no’, ‘agree/disagree’, ‘1-10’ or make up your own
  • Find your corner – label each corner A, B, C and D – pupils stand in each corner depending on the question
  • Hot responses – hot, spicy, mild – pupils choose an activity and difficulty, therefore, indicating their confidence
  • How many fingers – 1-10 confidence level or 1-5 depending on the question
  • Thumbs Up or Down – quick testing of confidence
  • Confidence Rating – use 1-4 rather than 1-5 as pupils will often plump for the middle one.
  • Sad face or smiley face – easy to use in books, whiteboards etc for self or peer assessment
  • Starting Point – by deciding on level of entry pupils indicate their confidence level and prior knowledge
  • No hands – means all pupils have to come up with a good answer and to help with this…
  • Random Name Generator – use http://www.classtools.net (with loads of other games and tools) or StickPick app (small cost).
  • Snowball fight – write/work on something – scrunch it up and all throw at the same time – good fun – open, add, edit, assess, scrunch and throw. Repeat. Use notes with annotations to formulate a final draft.
  • Snowballing – one person works on a task, pairs up, joins a third, a fourth and so on.
  • Pyramid – one pairs with another, two become four, become eight etc – good for class discussion

Feedback has most effect when it creates ‘cognitive conflict’ meaning that the student is puzzled they got it wrong, and starts to work out why, Hattie (2003)

We also had a play with Quizlet Live, Kahoot, Spiral, Socrative, Plickers and QR codes. Lots of digital ways to assess learning and find ways to move forwards. We also looked at how to support EAL learners in the classroom – often a significant factor in International Schools.

You can see some of the feedback on the course below. Teachers left with practical strategies that really work. Dragonfly Training pride themselves on making courses ‘hands-on’, based on current research and educational thinking and bespoke to a particular context for each school. Each course can be adapted to suit any number of teachers. They also work well for all-through schools. Get in touch if you would like more information. With huge thanks to those staff willing to share some feedback on camera. (You were great!)

This was a great team of teachers to work with. Full of enthusiasm and ready to take on new ideas and tweak some old ones. Have a look at their site here http://www.stgeorgesschool.de/munich

 

 

I also deliver courses on Google Suite – Apps for Education (Digital Pedagogy), Raising Boys’ Achievement, Active Learning, Science and STEM in Junior and Elementary Schools and Wellbeing. Just get in touch with Dragonfly HQ for more information.

Need a good idea? Ask a child!

Pupils gather to share STEM solutions to major world issues in UK’s first STEM Leaders’ Conference for young people.

Over one hundred 9-12 year-olds from 11 East Sussex schools across Eastbourne, Hailsham and Seaford took part in the UK’s first STEM Leaders’ Conference. They had been working on a range of projects to create imaginative and sustainable solutions to major issues facing many populations around the world including sanitation, clean air and renewable energy sources. The projects were inspired by the work of the charity Practical Action (www.practicalaction.org) who work globally to tackle major issues in developing countries. Their projects include the Squashed Tomato Challenge, Floating Garden Challenge and Beat the Flood. They provide high-quality free resources for schools through their website.

The event was organised by Pevensey and Westham CE Primary School to raise awareness of global issues and to raise the profile of practical STEM subjects. Richard Thomas, Headteacher, said, “We have made practical science a priority at our school. Primary School is not just about Maths and English. We want to equip our pupils with a range of skills and enthusiasm for learning. It is through engaging science that we have been able to raise standards across the whole school. Ofsted inspectors confirmed this last month. This Conference has allowed us to share this enthusiasm with other local schools.” The schools involved were Pevensey and Westham CE Primary, The Haven Voluntary Aided Primary School, Stafford Junior School, Langney Primary, St. John’s Meads Primary School, Grovelands County Primary, Oakwood Primary, Willingdon Primary, Seaford Head School (Secondary), Hailsham Community College (Secondary) and Gildredge House (Secondary).

Pupils from Years 5, 6 and 7 brought along their ideas in the form of working models, presentations, videos and posters. The emphasis of the Conference was very much about the ideas rather than the presentation but the level of expertise in presenting to a packed auditorium of peers and teachers was commendable. Pupils also developed a range of employability skills, a focus of STEM Learning UK, including teamwork, collaboration, brainstorming, leadership and persistence. Pupils were also delighted with Conference ‘goodie bags’ and a variety of prizes drawn through the afternoon.

Conference coordinator, Marcus Cherrill was delighted with the level of support from local businesses and educational companies alike. He said, “These kinds of events don’t really happen without support and people working together. We would like to thank Eastbourne College for hosting the event in The Birley Centre and to TEVA Pharmaceuticals Ltd for sponsoring the staff training event. David Lloyd Eastbourne, The Beach Deck, Deliciously Gorgeous and Games Workshop also provided vouchers for the event. Twig World, Music4Learning and Twinkl Resources also supplied prizes and vouchers for educational resources. We are very grateful to our supporters.” Attending the event, Sarah Jerkins from TEVA Pharmaceuticals Ltd, said, “We were impressed by the enthusiasm all of the teams showed. It was clear that they had put a lot of effort and research into putting their ideas together to make a working model and were able to present their findings to the audience. We look forward to welcoming the voucher winning team to visit our distribution centre in Eastbourne.” The Conference was also supported by the ASE (Association for Science Education), The Science Museum and STEM Sussex and their team of STEM Ambassadors. Marcus Cherrill added, “We believe that with the right support and good planning, this kind of Conference for young people with Science leadership roles in schools, can work without imposing great burdens on teachers or pupils. It really works.”

Two year 7 pupils from Hailsham Community College commented afterwards, “That was great fun! We were really nervous as we had to wait until the very end but we were pleased with our water filtration system. We think it will solve clean water issues in a number of countries around the world. We are already thinking of ideas for next year!”

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Group photo courtesy: India Pocock – Eastbourne College

All other photos: Sarah Carmody https://www.sarahcarmody.uk/

Sound Matters

As a lifelong fan of decent music and in my new role as a Fellow of the RSA (Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce), I attended my first RSA event at the Sallis Benney Theatre in Brighton: The Future of Urban Sound Planning on Wednesday 22 February.

With an eclectic mix of seasoned speakers, University academics, and engineers of soundscapes, I was instantly engaged in the content of the evening. Sound really does matter and how we respond to the multitude of sounds around us is complex, innate and fascinating.

Julian Treasure, he of acclaimed TED talks on sound and founder of The Sound Agency, branding machine for international corporations, spoke at length with crystal clear audio accompaniment on how sound affects us. Sound in the workplace, open plan office spaces, distracting sounds, painful sounds and calming bird song with rhythmic pulses of ocean waves filled the auditorium and carefully contextualized the importance of the evening. Julian highlighted the importance of protecting our wellbeing through careful choices and through ‘sound’ design and not just volumes but rhythms and types of sound. He explained how we are designed to respond to our ears much faster than our vision. Hearing is 360 degrees he explained, yet our world is dominated by the visual signals we are subjected to on a constant basis. Sound affects our behaviour – the deepest bin in the world clip demonstrates this. Sound affects our mood – melancholy or magical tones can lift us or bury us. Music too has its own place in our world. We are born with a natural response to rhythm and we just know how certain combinations of notes can make us feel. I believe that music has a significant and profound effect on our emotions, that’s why I founded Music4Learning. That’s why I was interested in hearing more about soundscapes and how people are working to achieve better sound balances in our lives.

A team from Brighton and Hove City Council are working on a number of projects to create better urban spaces through a more creative use of architecture and sound. In one of their pilot projects, they took a busy seafront location, full of traffic, people and noise and used focused sound to create a calm zone. The results were spectacular. Another part of the research took them to use cameras and music in a dingy subterranean tunnel from the main road to beach and promenade. With the sugar plum fairy music from The Nutcracker Suite playing,  skulking changed to waltzing and introvert switched to extrovert in a matter of seconds.

Andy Knowles from Anderson Acoustics described brilliantly the passion that some architects have for creating better soundscapes, responsive to our needs and promoting our well-being. Sadly, planning blocks, intransigence and bloody-mindedness get in the way. It’s a frustrating business to be in by all accounts. Generating ideas is only half the battle.

One of the last presentations was on how the study of sound from an academic point of view can ‘open our eyes and ears’ to more thoughtful approaches to urban design and public health. In one part, Dr. Emmanuel Spinelli described how he had studied the designs and subsequent noise output of a wide range of hand dryers. Interesting – particularly when you consider the noise output from a child’s point of view. They are tested to within an inch of their life in sterile sound-proof booths but not necessarily in a fully tiled echo chamber that exists in most restrooms and can leave a sensitive 4-year-old requiring another visit to the bathroom.

I found the explanations of how sound design can be better incorporated into our world entirely fascinating. My role as founder of Music4Learning is to help teachers change the atmosphere in their classrooms through careful choices of music. Sound really matters.

The event was supported by The Noise Abatement SocietyAnderson Acoustics, and The RSA. Our Twitter feed commented on the evening @music4learning #rsasoundscapes

Blended Learning Approaches in Science

I was delighted to be invited to present at the Education Show this month in Birmingham in the Maths and Science Theatre. I based my presentation around the use of IntoScience in my classroom and how it enhances practical elements of science teaching. IntoScience is fairly new on the science noticeboard but I have been fortunate enough to run a few trials with my year 7 and 8 students over the last 6 months.

I have found IntoScience to be easy to use, intuitive and most certainly engaging on many different levels. I explained in my presentation that ‘blended learning approaches’ are important in the modern classroom because that’s where students are at. It is where they will be in two, five and ten years time. Allowing them to manipulate technology and use it to enhance their learning is crucial.

The ‘virtual world’ that IntoScience provides brings a natural safety net for students to make mistakes and take risks. How else could you run car crash tests at 100 km/h or create your own planets in a goldilocks zone? IntoScience provides a range of virtual investigations that just can’t be done in most classrooms. The other major advantage is that students can work with IntoScience at home on their own devices in their own time. This ‘flipped’ model means students return to the classroom and develop a deeper understanding having reviewed the content in their own time. Persisting with this model has brought great rewards to students in my classroom. They are used to working on projects at home and they come to lessons well prepared (training essential!).

These are a few screenshots from the Crash Test Dummies activity in the Familiar Forces Topic. I can’t replicate this in the classroom (safely!). What I can do is introduce familiar forces in a practical way using film canister ‘rockets’ and balloons with some ideas about balanced and unbalanced forces, then students use IntoScience to explore. They can collect data, interpret results, analyse them using graphs, make predictions and suggest further investigations. They can do this either in the classroom on a set of tablets or they can do it at home. The best bit is that I can see their answers, suggest improvements and track their progress through a reporting tool. I can also compare with other classes to see where they are up to.

These activities are principally aimed at KS3 but the coverage of these activities against KS2 National Curriculum outcomes is excellent. They also support revision and consolidation at KS4. Each set of activities contains a ‘mid’ and ‘end challenge which tests their understanding as they go. Again, I can track their progress and identify areas of strength and weakness.

There is also a range of ‘locations’ within the application that take students (in the form of their personalised avatar) around an Asian woodland, exploring biodiversity, an Observatory, exploring the solar system and a Monorail, where they fix things to get the station up and running again. The wow factor is in the final ‘location’ which is a true-to-life replica of the Jenolan Caves (a must-see, field trip staple in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales). In the caves, students can explore and collect ‘inquiry points’ as they investigate humidity, temperature and oxygen levels inside the caves. The opportunities for students to explore new environments are numerous.

My presentation also referred to ‘The 3rd Degree’. This is an absolute winner with the students. They can play each other in real time as they try to score points with their science knowledge. There are four levels of difficulty: easy, medium, hard and extreme. Answering questions correctly unlocks higher point questions. Students have 90 seconds to do their best and beat any opponent that might be in the same game. They could end up playing a live game with students from another school too!

In summary, IntoScience is an essential part of my Year 8 planning. This year group require careful planning – they are just at that age – and I have two groups with a majority of activity thirsty boys. These activities and the level of competition and engagement they offer are crucial to successful outcomes.

Games in learning

A look at how Kahoot might help you engage your students.

I have spent most of my years teaching trying to engage students. Some tactics have been more successful than others. The element of surprise has always been lurking and is often a winner, particularly as a science teacher. Expect the unexpected! So, best to be prepared then. Crafting a lesson plan is one thing but introducing the flexibility to divert and go with the flow is a tough ask and demands a little more resilience and adaptability. A significant part of my planning would be on assessing progress and demonstrating skills or knowledge that they didn’t have when they came in that day.

Using Kahoot https://getkahoot.com/ , the game-based classroom response system, which allows students to engage on a completely different level has changed the way I view assessment for learning. On a simple level, it’s a quiz. Everybody loves a quiz. Especially when you know the answers. The questions go up on the board and the students answer. Easy. What makes Kahoot so good is the technology. It’s nothing revolutionary but it makes the application of ‘checking progress’ look like child’s play. You need WiFi and you need a reasonable number of devices, preferably but not essentially handheld. You need to display the option choices. The key part of the game is that students can make their choices without putting their hand up or without shouting out. It’s ok to make a mistake. In fact, they will declare it quite vehemently under the guise of ‘pressing the wrong button….’. The risk of public humiliation is dramatically reduced. That is until the scores are revealed. The quicker the correct response, the more points awarded. The top five scores are displayed but every player knows their position and they know how far behind the next player they are. The teacher can control the pace of the questions, both in setting a time limit for response and manually between questions. This can create a furious-paced five or ten minute plenary or a slightly slower examination of right and wrong answers.

You can easily introduce literacy and numeracy. A key requirement is that students read the question. It’s easy to make the answers phonetically similar or group words of similar spellings. You can also involve students in creating the quizzes. They become researcher, collator, writer and developer in one part of the lesson and quiz master in the next. The metacognition involved in this process and the access to higher order thinking skills is tangible. Kahoot is as versatile as you would want it to be. You can add video clips and images to stimulate responses at the beginning of the quiz or in each question. You can also draw on other users’ quizzes. You might be able to copy and adapt these but also share yours with others either in your school or more widely. Have a look for quizzes on ‘Frozen’ or Logos or chemical symbols. What is undeniable is the sustained interest that is generated in the students. The elements of competition, pace and challenge combine to make this a real winner.

Some top tips for using Kahoot:

  • Keep it relatively short – 20 questions maximum and 10-15 minutes
  • Stick to real names on set up – it avoids subtle name calling
  • Involve students in setting their own quizzes
  • Take some time to add images or a video at the start
  • Make yours public and add some good tags
  • Use a flipped model of learning – set a video to watch first
  • Try with staff – it will transform briefing sessions
  • Use it across all subjects
  • Have fun with it